John Rutledge (1739-1800) of South Carolina led the five-member Retail Committee, which on July 23, 1787, adopted all 19 resolutions adopted by the Convention, a plan presented by Delegate Charles Pinckney of South Carolina (1757-1824) and New Jersey`s rejected plan to serve as the basis for the development of a draft Constitution. The retail committee`s draft has boldly reoriented the Convention. The many remarks of Alexander Hamilton (1757-1804) of New York illustrate the hard work that remains to the delegates. Representation in the House of Commons would be elected by the people. The number of representatives of each state would be based on the entire white population of the state, plus three-fifths of the slave population. Each state would have one representative for every 40,000 inhabitants (later changed to 30,000). Each state would also have at least one representative, even if it did not have 40,000 inhabitants. During the ensuing debate on the adoption of the Constitution, James Madison, along with Alexander Hamilton and John Jay of New York, wrote a masterful cut-out and analysis of the system of government presented in the Constitution. The 85 articles were originally published in New York newspapers as arguments directed against federal forces in that state, but their scope was much larger.
Madison`s federalist number X explains what an expanding Republic could do if it accepts the fundamental condition of majority power, a balanced government consisting of three separate branches and the obligation to compensate all competing interests with a system of checks and balances. In May 1787 a meeting of delegates from all states except Rhodes Island was held in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. At that meeting, it was decided that the best solution to the problems of the young country was to set aside the statutes of the Confederation and draft a new Constitution. George Washington presided over the Constitutional Convention. Before the official start of the Congress, Madison and the other Virginia delegates had devised a plan — the Virginia Plan — to correct the articles of Confederation. Their plan went far beyond changes and corrections and did present a whole new instrument of government. The plan included three distinct branches of government: legislative, executive and judicial. The legislative branch would have two houses, the first being elected by the people of each state, and the second by the first from a list drawn up by the national parliaments.
When the Convention received the draft proposals, another lively debate broke out.