For each of the different anthropogenic greenhouse gases, different emission reductions would be needed to achieve the goal of stabilizing atmospheric concentrations (see the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and Stabilization of Greenhouse Gas Concentrations).  Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the main anthropogenic ThG.  Stabilizing the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere would ultimately require the effective elimination of anthropogenic CO2 emissions.  Kyoto Protocol, 2005. The Kyoto Protocol [PDF], adopted in 1997 and entered into force in 2005, was the first legally binding climate treaty. It called on industrialized countries to reduce emissions by an average of 5% from 1990 levels and set up a system to monitor countries` progress. But the treaty did not force developing countries, including the major CO2 emitters China and India, to take action. The United States signed the agreement in 1998, but never ratified it and then withdrew its signature. Although the United States and Turkey are not parties to the agreement, as they have not indicated their intention to withdraw from the 1992 UNFCCC, they will continue to be required, as an “Annex 1” country under the UNFCCC, to end national communications and establish an annual inventory of greenhouse gases.
 Developed countries should pay developing countries to reduce their emissions. Under such a system – so-called trading targets – developing countries would commit to binding greenhouse gas emission targets and then participate in an international system for purchasing and selling emissions permits. A country or company would be able to pay for an authorization to exceed its target, while other countries receive payments for issues that fall within their objectives. If developing countries were to connect to a system such as trade objectives, it would not only have environmental and economic benefits for the rest of the world; it would also have considerable environmental and economic benefits for developing countries themselves. Let us consider a plan that, during the 2008-2012 budget period, developing countries are only committed to their usual emissions trajectories and adhere to the trading system. (c) reconciling financial flows with a way to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and climate-resilient development.