In 1992, President George H.W. Bush joined 107 other heads of state at the Rio Earth Summit in Brazil to adopt a series of environmental agreements, including the UNFCCC framework, which is still in force today. The international treaty aims to prevent dangerous human intervention in the planet`s climate systems in the long term. The pact does not set limits on greenhouse gas emissions from individual countries and does not contain enforcement mechanisms, but establishes a framework for international negotiations on future agreements or protocols to set binding emissions targets. Participating countries meet annually at a Conference of the Parties (COP) to assess their progress and continue discussions on how best to combat climate change. The aim of the agreement is to reduce the global warming described in Article 2 and to improve the implementation of the UNFCCC by the Eiffel Tower in Paris. On November 4, 2016, the Paris Agreement on Climate Change, the most ambitious climate agreement in history, was highlighted in green (Photo: Jean-Baptiste Gurliat/ Paris City Council) Other major economies, such as Japan and South Korea, pledged last month to be carbon neutral by 2050, but did not explain in detail how they will achieve this. In total, more than 60 countries around the world – including all EU Member States except Poland – have pledged to achieve zero net emissions by the middle of the century. The Paris Agreement provides a sustainable framework that guides global efforts for decades to come. The aim is to increase countries` climate ambitions over time. To achieve this, the agreement provides for two review processes, each in a five-year cycle.
Adaptation issues were at the forefront of the paris agreement. Collective long-term adaptation objectives are included in the agreement and countries must be accountable for their adaptation measures, making adaptation a parallel element of the mitigation agreement.  Adaptation objectives focus on improving adaptive capacity, resilience and vulnerability limitation.  Iran, Iraq and Libya – all members of the 14-member Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (Opec) – and conflict-torn states such as Yemen and South Sudan have not ratified the agreement. The task becomes more difficult. Although high-emigration countries are increasingly interested in containing warming, experts warn that current climate and energy policies are not enough to keep the world below 2 degrees Celsius of warming. This year, greenhouse gas emissions have fallen significantly – due to lower travel activity and economic activity during the coronavirus pandemic – but this will do little to bring the world closer to its climate goal, experts warn. In the end, all parties recognized the need to “prevent, minimize and address losses and damages,” but in particular any mention of compensation or liability is excluded.  The Convention also takes up the Warsaw International Loss and Damage Mechanism, an institution that will attempt to answer questions about how to classify, address and co-responsible losses.
 Negotiators of the agreement stated that the INDCs presented at the time of the Paris conference were insufficient. concerned that aggregate greenhouse gas emission estimates for 2025 and 2030, resulting from projected national contributions, are not covered by the most cost-effective scenarios at 2oC, but result in a forecast level of 55 gigatonnes. By 2030, and acknowledging “that much greater efforts will be needed to reduce emissions in order to keep the increase in the average global temperature to less than 2 degrees Celsius by reducing emissions to 40 gigatonnes or 1.5 degrees Celsius.   [Clarification required] From 30 November to 11 December 2015, France hosted representatives from 196 countries at the UN Climate Change Conference (UN), one of the largest and most ambitious global meetings ever held.