Free trade agreements, which form free trade areas, are generally outside the scope of the multilateral trading system. Economists have conducted extensive work on the theoretical and empirical effects of free trade. Although it creates winners and losers, the broad consensus among economists is that free trade provides a net gain to society.   In a 2006 survey of U.S. economists (83 respondents), “87.5% agree that the U.S. should remove tariffs and other barriers to trade” and “90.1% disagree with the proposal that the U.S. should prevent employers from outsourcing labor abroad.”  Trade agreements are concluded when two or more countries agree on the terms of trade between them. They determine the tariffs that countries impose on imports and exports. All trade agreements have an impact on international trade. Free trade agreements can reaffirm the importance of maintaining and enforcing competition law, transparency and due process with provisions on cooperation and consultation/notification in the field of competition policy, particularly where anti-competitive behaviour may have affected trade and investment between countries. For example, New Zealand often seeks to include rules to restrict and discipline certain categories of subsidies of particular importance, including those that harm our export markets or the environment, such as subsidies that encourage the use of fossil fuels or unsustainable fishing practices. Since the end of World War II, in part due to industrial size and the beginning of the Cold War, the United States has often been a proponent of reducing tariff barriers and free trade. The United States helped establish the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade and, later, the World Trade Organization, although it rejected an earlier version, the International Trade Organization, in the 1950s.
 [Citation needed] Since the 1970s, U.S. governments have negotiated trade agreements, such as the North American Free Trade Agreement in the 1990s, the Dominican Republic-Central America Free Trade Agreement in 2006, and a number of bilateral agreements (such as with Jordan). [Citation required] The Ottoman Empire had a liberal policy of free trade in the 18th century, which has its origins in the capitulation of the Ottoman Empire, which dates back to the first trade treaties with France in 1536 and continued in 1673, 1740, which reduced customs duties to only 3% on imports and exports, and continued in 1790. Ottoman free trade policies were criticized by British economists who advocated free trade, such as J.R. McCulloch in his Dictionary of Commerce (1834), but criticized by British politicians who opposed free trade, such as Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli, who cited and defended the Ottoman Empire in the 1846 corn laws debate as “an example of the violation of unfettered competition.” that in 1812 he had destroyed “some of the best manufacturers in the world.”  The world has almost received more free trade from the next round, the so-called Doha Round trade deal. .